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How To Cite Sources



Why do I have to cite sources anyway? What is a bibliography or Works Cited page?

MLA-Style Paper

What is MLA? Plagiarism and Fair Use Evaluating a Website Source Template
Easy Bib Citing Not-So-Common Sources


Example of a Works Cited or Bibliography History Day Bibliography Website Evaluation Checklist  






When you write a research paper, you MUST always give credit for any information: text, images, video, podcast, and ideas you get from another source. If you fail to give credit for materials used, whether quoted or not, you have committed plagiarism, which is a form of cheating.





Plagiarism is when a writer does not give proper credit to their sources, whether it is text, images, podcasts, documentaries, YouTube videos, pretty much everything except for information that is common knowledge, for example "The sky is blue.". When you copy someone else's work and say it's your own, that's plagiarism.

View this video clip to learn more:








At KIS, we use MLA style for bibliographies and papers, unless your teacher tells you otherwise. MLA stands for Modern Language
Association and it sets a standard for a writer's bibliography or a "Works Cited" page.






A bibliography or a "Works Cited" page is a list of sources used to complete your research project and is found at the end of the paper. Bibliographies give authors and illustrators credit for their work and provide your readers evidence of research. It also helps you avoid plagiarism.

Example of a Works Cited page







Go to the EasyBib site and open an account. This site will allow you to easily site all types of sources.

Use EasyBib in your Google Docs to create a bibliography or Works Cited page. For sources other than a book or website use the following information to create a citations. Use the MLA style

Instructions: Go to Google Docs and click on Add-Ons in the toolbar. Click on EasyBib Bibliography Creator and slide your cursor over to Manage Bibliography. Click on website button, go to the website and copy the URL (website address) using CTRL C and paste (CTRL V) in your website address. Click on Select. The citation will appear. Repeat with all of your sources. When citing a book, click on Book and enter the book title, check to see you have the correct author. Click on Select. When you are all finished, click on the red box that says Add Bibliography to Doc .






A footnote and a parenthetical reference puts life a notation next to the information (text or image) in your writing that tells the reader exactly wher you got the information.

Example of a parenthetical reference:

Martin Luther King, Jr. spoke to thousands of Americans about racial equality a the Lincoln Memorial on August 28, 1963. He stated, "I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character." (Smith, 58) (Smith is the author, 58 is the page number of the book). There are quotations marks surrounding the direct quote.

You can do an easy footnote it in Google. Go to Tools then click on Research. Find the image or text. Click on "Cite"

Example of a footnote:

1"I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character."

1"Martin Luther King I Have a Dream Speech - American ..." 2006. 30 Sep. 2014 <http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm>





Go to the EasyBib site and open an account. This site will allow you to easily site all types of sources.



1 Article in a Reference Book

(Author complete name). “(Title of article).” (Title of book italicized). (City of publisher): (Publisher), (Year last published).

Feinberg, Joe. "Freedom and Behavior Control." Encyclopedia of Bioethics, New York: Free Press, 1992.

2 Book:

One author
(Author complete name). (Title of book italicized). (City of publisher): (Publisher), (Year published).

Pepin, Ronald E. Literature of Satire in the Twelfth Century. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press, 1988.

3 Book Two authors
(Authors complete names). (Title of book italicized). (City of publisher): (Publisher), (Year published).

Metheny, N.M., and W. D. Snively. Nurses' Handbook of Fluid Balance. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1967.

4 Book: Three or more authors

(First author named & et al). (Title of book italicized). (City of publisher): (Publisher), (Year published).

Shields, J., et al. The History of English Alley. Hartford: Merganser Press, 1997.

5 Book: Anonymous author

(Title of book italicized). (City of publisher): (Publisher), (Year published).

Toilet Training and the Feral Child. Philadelphia: Franklin, 2000.

6 Book: Corporate Author

(Company or groups name). (Title of book italicized). (City of publisher): (Publisher), (Year published).

National Boosters of Small Appliances. Hair-Dryer Safety and the Three-Pronged Plug. New York: Booster Press, 2000.

7 Book: Part of a Book

(Author of insert). (Label Forward). (Title of book italicized). (Author of book). (City of publisher): (Publisher), (Year published). (Page numbers).

Pepin, Ronald E. Foreword. The Saints of Diminished Capacity: Selected Poems, 1972-2000. By Charles Darling. Hartford: Capital Press, 1997.ix.

8 Essay or Article in a Collection
(Author of essay complete name). “(Title of essay of article). (Title of book italicized). (Editor of collection). (City of publisher): (Publisher), (Year published).

Hennessy, Margot C. "Listening to the Secret Mother: Reading J.E.Wideman's Brothers and Keepers." American Women's Autobiography: Feasts of Memory. Ed. Margo Culley. Madison, WI: U. Wisconsin Press, 1992. 2-8.

9 Signed newspaper article
(Author complete name). “(Title of article).” (Name of newspaper italicized), (Date published): (Section & Page).

Huffstutter, P.J. "Music Rights Get Tangled on the Web." The Honolulu Advertiser, 31 May 2000: A1+.

10 Unsigned newspaper article
“(Title of article).” (Name of newspaper italicized), (Date published): (Section & Page).

"U.S. Troops Capture Chief Aide to Warlord." The Honolulu Star Bulletin, 22 Sept. 1993: A5.

11 Signed Magazine Article
(Author complete name). “(Title of article).” (Name of magazine italicized), (Date published): (Page numbers).

Wolkomir, Richard. "Charting the Terrain of Touch." Smithsonian Dec. 2000: 38-48.

12 Unsigned Magazine Article
“(Title of article).” (Name of magazine italicized), (Date published): (Page numbers).

"What's a Hoatzin?" Newsweek 27 Sept. 1993: 72-73.

13 Editorial
(Author complete name). “(Title of editorial).” (Name of newspaper italicized), (Label editorial). (Date published): (Section & Page).

Hayward, Steven. "The Sprawl Myth: America Isn't Running Out of Land." Editorial. New York Times 31 May 2000: A13.

14 Legal Document:

(Act's name or title). (Public Law number). (Date it was enacted). (Statutes at Large cataloging number).

Driving a Professor Crazy Act of 1996. Publ. L. 100-418. 14 Nov. 1996. Stat. 99.1496.

15 Legal Document:

Court Case
(Case Title). (Listing information). (Ruling Court). (Year).

Pepin v. Medieval Scholars Soc. of America. 176 USPQ 677. CT Super. Ct. 1996.

16 Brochures and Pamphlets
(Company or groups name). (Title of brochure italicized). (City of publisher): (Publisher), (Year published).

Statewide Council on Community Colleges. Community Colleges: Good for Hawaii, Good for You! Honolulu: Capital Press, 2000.

17 Movie (Major Motion Picture)
“(Movie title italicized).” (Directed by). (Main Performers). (Movie studio), (Year).

The Mirror Has Two Faces. Dir. Barbra Streisand. Perf. Barbra Streisand, Jeff Bridges, Lauren Bacall, Pierce Brosnan, George Segal. Tri-Star, 1996.

18 Documentary
“(Documentary title italicized).” (Format). (Directed by). (Producing studio), (Year). (Length).

Creation vs. Evolution: "Battle of the Classroom." DVD. Dir. Ryall Wilson, PBS Video, 1982. 58 min.

19 Television Programs
“(Episode title).” (Narrated by). (Television program italicized). (Broadcaster). (Local Station). (City viewed in). (Broadcast Date).

"Busted by the FBI!" Narr. Morley Safer. Sixty Minutes. CBS. KGMB, Honolulu. 14 Feb. 2000.

20 Interview: Television Programs
(Interviewee). (Interview by). (Television program italicized). (Broadcaster). (Local Station). (City viewed in). (Broadcast Date).

Clinton, Bill. Interview with Ted Koppel. Nightline, ABC. KITV, Honolulu. 14 Nov. 1996.

21 Interview: Newspaper or Magazine
“(Interviewee).” (Interviewed by). “(Title of article).” (Name of newspaper italicized), (Date published): (Section & Page).

Kundera, Milan. Interview by Sara Mullen. “School Attendance Rises.” New York Times 18 Jan. 1982, C1+.

22 Interview: Personal
“(Interviewee).” (Label interview type). “(Interviewer).” (Location). (Date).

Kundera, Milan. Personal interview. By Susan Weller. Honolulu. 18 Jan. 2003.

23 Speech
(Speaker). (Label speech type). (Propose of presentation).” (Location), (City). (Date).

King Jr., Martin Luther. Keynote speech. March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Lincoln Memorial, Washington DC. 28 Aug. 1963.

24 Original Song & Lyrics
(Writer, Artist). (Song Title). (CD Title italicized).” (Recording Company), (Year).

Kamakawiwo’ole, Israel. "Hawai’i 78." Facing Future. Bigboy Record Co., 1993.

25 Original Artwork in a Book
(Artist). (Art title italicized). (Museum or archive).” (Location). (Book title italicized). (Edited by). (City published): (Publisher), (Year). (Page).

Monet, Claude. Water Lilies and Japanese Bridge. Smithsonian, Washington DC. History of Art (2nd Ed.). By H.W. Janson. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1978. 778.

26 Photograph in a Collection or Museum

(Photographer). (Photo title italicized). (Year). (Collection or Museum), (Location).

Silva, Paul. Tourist on Waikiki Beach. 1940. Bishop Museum Archives, Honolulu, HI.

27 Photograph from Private Collection
(Create photo title). (Location taken). (Label type and photographer). (Date).

(Sunset on Waikiki Beach). Honolulu, HI. Personal photograph by Kevin Boehning. 28 May 2000.

28 Graphic Materials Map, graph…
(Create material type). (Label source type). (Year). (Collection or Museum), (Location).

(Map of Waikiki). Map. 1952. Hawaii State Archives Honolulu, HI.

29 Artifacts (Create source title).

(Artifact). (Location found). (Label type from owner). (Date).

(Bomb Fragments). Artifact. Waialua, HI. Personal collection by Ross Moody. 7 Dec. 1941.

30 Personal Online Site
(Author). (Title of page). (Label Type). (Date Created). (Date Accessed). <(Complete online address)>.

Pellegrino, Joseph. Home page. 16 Dec. 1998. 1 Oct. 1999. <http://www.english.eku.edu /pellegrino/personal.htm>.

31 Ebsco Host

(Author). "(Title of Article)" (copyright: page number) Database. Ebscohost. Library. Date accessed URL

Loiselle, Brett. "The Battle of Gettysburg." 2005: 1. Middle Search Plus. Ebscohost. Kailua Intermediate School. 09.18/06 <http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=19&hid=19&sid=93a0da0d-25f9-4232-9691-3b8ec5044d3d%40SRCSM1>.

32 Webpage Sources:

Photos, maps, audio & video clips
“(Title of source).” (Type of source). (Source creator). (Website creating group/organization). (Date Accessed). <(Complete online address)>.

"Methuen, Massachusetts." Map. U.S. Gazetteer. US Census Bureau. 4 Oct. 1999 <http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/gazetteer>.

33 Email Interview

(Email Author). “(Title of Email).” (Email Received by). (Date Sent).

Kleppinger, Eugene. "How to Cite Information from the Web." E-mail to Andrew Harnack. 10 Jan. 1999.